Prospecção de parques hidrocinéticos: comparação entre projetos preliminares nos rios Iguaçu e Paraná
Araújo, Marcos Aurélio de
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Neste trabalho é apresentado uma análise preliminar e comparativa entre dois estudos de prospecção de parques hidrocinéticos, um no rio Iguaçu e outro no rio Paraná. Os locais propostos para instalação dos parques hidrocinéticos, ficam a jusante das Cataratas do Iguaçu e a jusante da Itaipu Binacional, nos rios Iguaçu e Paraná respectivamente. O parque hidrocinético desta proposta comportará duas turbinas de 500 kW, totalizando 1 MW de potência instalada. O propósito do estudo é relacionar os pontos que influenciam na prospecção de um parque hidrocinético, fornecendo as ferramentas necessárias para fazer uma avaliação preliminar, evitando com isso investimentos desnecessários em estudos que podem ser realizados em um projeto mais detalhado.This work presents a preliminary and comparative analysis between two studies of prospecting of hydrokinetic parks, one in the Iguaçu River and the other in the Paraná River. These rivers, despite different sizes, present all the necessary conditions for the installation of hydrokinetic turbines of the same configuration, the difference between them being the flow, the Paraná river has an average flow ten times greater than the Iguaçu river. The proposed sites for the installation of the hydrokinetic parks are located downstream from the Iguaçu Falls and downstream from Itaipu Binacional, on the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers, respectively. The hydrokinetic park of this proposal will include two 500 kW turbines, totaling 1 MW of installed capacity. The purpose of the study is to relate the points that influence the prospection of a hydrokinetic park, providing the necessary tools to make a preliminary evaluation, thus avoiding unnecessary investments in studies that can be carried out in a more detailed project. For the development of this work, first, the most appropriate river stretch was chosen, and the site was then checked for width and depth requirements. Based on the flow data collected at the fluviometric stations and the cross-sectional area of the rivers, the mean velocity of the water course was calculated. With the results, it was possible to compare the energy produced in the two sites, to finally decide which place to install the park would be better. The exploration of hydrokinetic parks consists of the choice of the place for installation of the turbines, the evaluation of the speed, width and depth of the water flow. The study is necessary because the energy generated depends on the speed of the water flow, the diameter of the rotor and the efficiency of the system. The choice of the hydrokinetic turbine of 500 kW is due to the fact that its design, with all the technical details, is being studied by the Tucunaré Project, idealized by the University of Brasília and financially aided by Eletronorte. The purpose of the Tucunaré Project is to take advantage of the residual hydroelectric energy already tilted by the Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River, in the state of Pará. In order to estimate the velocity of the rivers at any height, the hydraulic cross-sectional area of the rivers was obtained by calculating irregular polygons and then tracing the trend lines. With the data in hand, the annual energy generated for the stretches of the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers was estimated. In a preliminary analysis, considering the characteristics, operating conditions and dimensions of the turbine, the sections of the rivers selected and the requirements in water width, depth and velocity, indicate the average production of 319.78 MW/year for the Iguaçu River and 1,360.52 MW/year for the Paraná River. It was verified that the Paraná river has an energetic potential about 4 times greater than the Iguaçu river, with this, taking advantage of the capacity of the hydrokinetic turbines. After the preliminary evaluation, the chosen section for installation should also be submitted to bathymetry, to prove its transversal profile and a river velocity measurement with ADCP equipment.